Sandstone and Tephrite

1 Definition
1.1 Definition
Sandstone is defined as a rock which is composed of sand-sized grains of various minerals mostly of uniform size and often are smooth and rounded
Tephrite is an aphanitic to porphyritic textured, volcanic igneous rock
1.2 History
1.2.1 Origin
1.2.2 Discoverer
Van Tooren
1.3 Etymology
From its composition, sand and stone
From Greek tephra, ashes from Indo-European base, to burn
1.4 Class
Sedimentary Rocks
Igneous Rocks
1.4.1 Sub-Class
Durable Rock, Hard Rock
Durable Rock, Hard Rock
1.5 Family
1.5.1 Group
Not Applicable
1.6 Other Categories
Coarse Grained Rock, Fine Grained Rock, Opaque Rock
Coarse Grained Rock, Fine Grained Rock, Medium Grained Rock, Opaque Rock
2 Texture
2.1 Texture
Clastic, Granular, Rough
Aphanitic to Porphyritic
2.2 Color
Beige, Black, Brown, Colourless, Cream, Dark Brown, Green, Grey, Light Green, Light to Dark Grey, Pink, Red, White, Yellow
Black, Brown, Colourless, Green, Grey, White
2.3 Maintenance
2.4 Durability
2.4.1 Water Resistant
59% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
81% Igneous Rocks Rocks have it !
2.4.2 Scratch Resistant
62% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
86% Igneous Rocks Rocks have it !
2.4.3 Stain Resistant
43% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
66% Igneous Rocks Rocks have it !
2.4.4 Wind Resistant
38% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
49% Igneous Rocks Rocks have it !
2.4.5 Acid Resistant
22% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
48% Igneous Rocks Rocks have it !
2.5 Appearance
3 Uses
3.1 Architecture
3.1.1 Interior Uses
Countertops, Decorative Aggregates, Interior Decoration
Decorative Aggregates, Flooring, Homes, Interior Decoration
3.1.2 Exterior Uses
As Building Stone, As Facing Stone, Office Buildings
As Building Stone, As Facing Stone, Garden Decoration, Office Buildings
3.1.3 Other Architectural Uses
3.2 Industry
3.2.1 Construction Industry
Cement Manufacture, Construction Aggregate, for Road Aggregate, Production of Glass and Ceramics, Raw material for the manufacture of mortar
3.2.2 Medical Industry
Not Yet Used
Not Yet Used
3.3 Antiquity Uses
Artifacts, Monuments, Sculpture
Artifacts, Sculpture
3.4 Other Uses
3.4.1 Commercial Uses
An Oil and Gas Reservoir, In aquifers, Petroleum reservoirs, Soil Conditioner, Source of Magnesia (MgO), Tombstones, Used in aquariums
Production of Lime, Soil Conditioner
4 Types
4.1 Types
Grey Sandstones, Crystallized Sandstones, Hard Sandstones , Carbonate Cemented Sandstones and Ganister
Not Available
4.2 Features
Available in Lots of Colors and Patterns, Generally rough to touch, Very fine grained rock
Host Rock for Lead
4.3 Archaeological Significance
4.3.1 Monuments
Not Yet Used
4.3.2 Famous Monuments
Abu Simbel in Egypt, Agia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey, Angkor Wat in Cambodia, Buland Darwaza in Agra, India, Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus in Maharashtra, India, Dom in Berlin, Great Sphinx at Giza, Egypt, Hawa Mahal in Jaipur, India, Humayun's Tomb in Delhi, India, India Gate in Delhi, India, Jama Masjid in Delhi, India, Khajuraho Temples, India, Leh Palace in Leh, India, Lotus Temple in New Delhi, India, Luxor Temple in Egypt, Machu Picchu in Peru, Neuschwanstein in Bavaria, Petra in Jordan, Qutb Minar in India, Red Fort in Delhi, India, Sanchi Stupa in India
Not Applicable
4.3.3 Sculpture
4.3.4 Famous Sculptures
Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra, India, Elephanta Caves in Maharashtra, India, Mount Rushmore National Memorial in South Dakota, US
Data Not Available
4.3.5 Pictographs
Not Used
Not Used
4.3.6 Petroglyphs
Not Used
Not Used
4.3.7 Figurines
4.4 Fossils
5 Formation
5.1 Formation
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock which forms from cemented sand-sized clasts. It forms when sand layers are buried under sediments of sand.
Tephrite is a fine-grained, hard rock which is a type of metasomatite, essentially altered basalt. It forms with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive rocks or on the surface as extrusive rocks.
5.2 Composition
5.2.1 Mineral Content
Calcite, Clay, Clay Minerals, Feldspar, Micas, Quartz
Alkali feldspar, Nepheline, Plagioclase, Pyroxene
5.2.2 Compound Content
Aluminium Oxide, CaO, Iron(III) Oxide, Potassium Oxide, MgO, Sodium Oxide, Silicon Dioxide
CaO, Carbon Dioxide, MgO, Silicon Dioxide
5.3 Transformation
5.3.1 Metamorphism
19% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
97% Igneous Rocks Rocks have it !
5.3.2 Types of Metamorphism
Not Applicable
Cataclastic Metamorphism, Contact Metamorphism, Impact Metamorphism, Regional Metamorphism
5.3.3 Weathering
78% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
99% Igneous Rocks Rocks have it !
5.3.4 Types of Weathering
Biological Weathering, Chemical Weathering, Mechanical Weathering
Biological Weathering, Chemical Weathering, Mechanical Weathering
5.3.5 Erosion
86% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
92% Igneous Rocks Rocks have it !
5.3.6 Types of Erosion
Chemical Erosion, Coastal Erosion, Glacier Erosion, Sea Erosion, Water Erosion, Wind Erosion
Chemical Erosion, Coastal Erosion, Glacier Erosion, Sea Erosion, Water Erosion
6 Properties
6.1 Physical Properties
6.1.1 Hardness
6.1.2 Grain Size
Coarse or Fine
Medium to Fine Coarse Grained
6.1.3 Fracture
6.1.4 Streak
Bluish Black
6.1.5 Porosity
Highly Porous
Very Less Porous
6.1.6 Luster
Subvitreous to Dull
6.1.7 Compressive Strength
What Is Flint
95.00 N/mm2
Rank: 20 (Overall)
90.00 N/mm2
Rank: 22 (Overall)
What Is Obsidian
6.1.8 Cleavage
Crenulation and Pervasive
6.1.9 Toughness
6.1.10 Specific Gravity
6.1.11 Transparency
6.1.12 Density
2.2-2.8 g/cm3
2.8-2.9 g/cm3
6.2 Thermal Properties
6.2.1 Specific Heat Capacity
What Is Banded ..
0.92 kJ/Kg K
Rank: 10 (Overall)
0.92 kJ/Kg K
Rank: 10 (Overall)
What Is Granulite
6.2.2 Resistance
Heat Resistant, Impact Resistant, Pressure Resistant
Heat Resistant, Impact Resistant
7 Reserves
7.1 Deposits in Eastern Continents
7.1.1 Asia
China, India, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, Thailand, Uzbekistan
Not Yet Found
7.1.2 Africa
Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa
Namibia, Uganda
7.1.3 Europe
Austria, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom
Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Spain
7.1.4 Others
Not Yet Found
7.2 Deposits in Western Continents
7.2.1 North America
Canada, USA
7.2.2 South America
Not Yet Found
7.3 Deposits in Oceania Continent
7.3.1 Australia
New South Wales, New Zealand
New Zealand, Western Australia

All about Sandstone and Tephrite Properties

Know all about Sandstone and Tephrite properties here. All properties of rocks are important as they define the type of rock and its application. Sandstone belongs to Sedimentary Rocks while Tephrite belongs to Igneous Rocks.Texture of Sandstone is Clastic, Granular, Rough whereas that of Tephrite is Aphanitic to Porphyritic. Sandstone appears Rough and Tephrite appears Vesicular. The luster of Sandstone is dull while that of Tephrite is subvitreous to dull. Sandstone and Tephrite are available in beige, black, brown, colourless, cream, dark brown, green, grey, light green, light to dark grey, pink, red, white, yellow colors. The commercial uses of Sandstone are an oil and gas reservoir, in aquifers, petroleum reservoirs, soil conditioner, source of magnesia (mgo), tombstones, used in aquariums and that of Tephrite are production of lime, soil conditioner.

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