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Sandstone
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Sandstone vs Shale

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1 Definition
1.1 Definition
Sandstone is defined as a rock which is composed of sand-sized grains of various minerals mostly of uniform size and often are smooth and rounded
Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock which is formed by the compaction of silt and clay-size mineral particles
1.2 History
1.2.1 Origin
Unknown
Unknown
1.2.2 Discoverer
Unknown
Unknown
1.3 Etymology
From its composition, sand and stone
From German Schalstein laminated limestone, and Schalgebirge layer of stone in stratified rock. From Old English scealu in its base sense of- thing that divides or separate,
1.4 Class
Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary Rocks
1.4.1 Sub-Class
Durable Rock, Hard Rock
Durable Rock, Medium Hardness Rock
1.5 Family
1.5.1 Group
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
1.6 Other Categories
Coarse Grained Rock, Fine Grained Rock, Opaque Rock
Fine Grained Rock, Opaque Rock
2 Texture
2.1 Texture
Clastic, Granular, Rough
Clastic, Splintery
2.2 Color
Beige, Black, Brown, Colourless, Cream, Dark Brown, Green, Grey, Light Green, Light to Dark Grey, Pink, Red, White, Yellow
Black, Brown, Buff, Green, Grey, Red, Yellow
2.3 Maintenance
More
More
2.4 Durability
Durable
Durable
2.4.1 Water Resistant
59% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
59% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
2.4.2 Scratch Resistant
62% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
62% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
2.4.3 Stain Resistant
43% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
43% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
2.4.4 Wind Resistant
38% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
38% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
2.4.5 Acid Resistant
22% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
22% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
2.5 Appearance
Rough
Muddy
3 Uses
3.1 Architecture
3.1.1 Interior Uses
Countertops, Decorative Aggregates, Interior Decoration
Decorative Aggregates, Homes, Interior Decoration
3.1.2 Exterior Uses
As Building Stone, As Facing Stone, Office Buildings
As Building Stone, As Facing Stone, Office Buildings
3.1.3 Other Architectural Uses
Curbing
Curbing
3.2 Industry
3.2.1 Construction Industry
Cement Manufacture, Construction Aggregate, for Road Aggregate, Production of Glass and Ceramics, Raw material for the manufacture of mortar
Cement Manufacture, Construction Aggregate, for Road Aggregate, Making natural cement, Raw material for the manufacture of mortar
3.2.2 Medical Industry
Not Yet Used
Not Yet Used
3.3 Antiquity Uses
Artifacts, Monuments, Sculpture
Artifacts, Sculpture
3.4 Other Uses
3.4.1 Commercial Uses
An Oil and Gas Reservoir, In aquifers, Petroleum reservoirs, Soil Conditioner, Source of Magnesia (MgO), Tombstones, Used in aquariums
Creating Artwork, Pottery
4 Types
4.1 Types
Grey Sandstones, Crystallized Sandstones, Hard Sandstones , Carbonate Cemented Sandstones and Ganister
Red Shale, Black Shale, Green Shale, Grey Shale and Yellow Shale
4.2 Features
Available in Lots of Colors and Patterns, Generally rough to touch, Very fine grained rock
Easily splits into thin plates, Generally rough to touch, Very fine grained rock
4.3 Archaeological Significance
4.3.1 Monuments
Used
Used
4.3.2 Famous Monuments
Abu Simbel in Egypt, Agia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey, Angkor Wat in Cambodia, Buland Darwaza in Agra, India, Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus in Maharashtra, India, Dom in Berlin, Great Sphinx at Giza, Egypt, Hawa Mahal in Jaipur, India, Humayun's Tomb in Delhi, India, India Gate in Delhi, India, Jama Masjid in Delhi, India, Khajuraho Temples, India, Leh Palace in Leh, India, Lotus Temple in New Delhi, India, Luxor Temple in Egypt, Machu Picchu in Peru, Neuschwanstein in Bavaria, Petra in Jordan, Qutb Minar in India, Red Fort in Delhi, India, Sanchi Stupa in India
Jantar Mantar in India
4.3.3 Sculpture
Used
Used
4.3.4 Famous Sculptures
Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra, India, Elephanta Caves in Maharashtra, India, Mount Rushmore National Memorial in South Dakota, US
Data Not Available
4.3.5 Pictographs
Not Used
Used
4.3.6 Petroglyphs
Not Used
Used
4.3.7 Figurines
Used
Used
4.4 Fossils
Present
Present
5 Formation
5.1 Formation
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock which forms from cemented sand-sized clasts. It forms when sand layers are buried under sediments of sand.
Shale forms when very fine-grained clay particles are deposited in water which settle at the bottom of water bodies. They are later compacted hence forming shale.
5.2 Composition
5.2.1 Mineral Content
Calcite, Clay, Clay Minerals, Feldspar, Micas, Quartz
Albite, Biotite, Calcite, Chert, Chlorite, Dolomite, Hematite, Micas, Muscovite or Illite, Pyrite, Quartz, Silica, Sulfides
5.2.2 Compound Content
Aluminium Oxide, CaO, Iron(III) Oxide, Potassium Oxide, MgO, Sodium Oxide, Silicon Dioxide
Ca, Fe, Mg, Silicon Dioxide, Sodium
5.3 Transformation
5.3.1 Metamorphism
19% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
19% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
5.3.2 Types of Metamorphism
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
5.3.3 Weathering
78% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
78% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
5.3.4 Types of Weathering
Biological Weathering, Chemical Weathering, Mechanical Weathering
Biological Weathering, Chemical Weathering, Mechanical Weathering
5.3.5 Erosion
86% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
86% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
5.3.6 Types of Erosion
Chemical Erosion, Coastal Erosion, Glacier Erosion, Sea Erosion, Water Erosion, Wind Erosion
Chemical Erosion, Coastal Erosion, Glacier Erosion
6 Properties
6.1 Physical Properties
6.1.1 Hardness
6-7
3
6.1.2 Grain Size
Coarse or Fine
Very fine-grained
6.1.3 Fracture
Conchoidal
Not Available
6.1.4 Streak
White
White
6.1.5 Porosity
Highly Porous
Highly Porous
6.1.6 Luster
Dull
Dull
6.1.7 Compressive Strength
Flint
95.00 N/mm2
Rank: 20 (Overall)
95.00 N/mm2
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Obsidian
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6.1.8 Cleavage
Perfect
Slaty
6.1.9 Toughness
2.6
2.6
6.1.10 Specific Gravity
2.2-2.8
2.2-2.8
6.1.11 Transparency
Opaque
Opaque
6.1.12 Density
2.2-2.8 g/cm3
2.4-2.8 g/cm3
6.2 Thermal Properties
6.2.1 Specific Heat Capacity
Banded iron for..
0.92 kJ/Kg K
Rank: 10 (Overall)
0.39 kJ/Kg K
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Granulite
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6.2.2 Resistance
Heat Resistant, Impact Resistant, Pressure Resistant
Heat Resistant, Impact Resistant
7 Reserves
7.1 Deposits in Eastern Continents
7.1.1 Asia
China, India, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, Thailand, Uzbekistan
Bangladesh, China, India, Russia
7.1.2 Africa
Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa
Ethiopia, Kenya, Morocco, South Africa, Tanzania
7.1.3 Europe
Austria, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom
Austria, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Switzerland
7.1.4 Others
Greenland
Not Yet Found
7.2 Deposits in Western Continents
7.2.1 North America
Canada, USA
USA
7.2.2 South America
Brazil
Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
7.3 Deposits in Oceania Continent
7.3.1 Australia
New South Wales, New Zealand
New South Wales, New Zealand, Queensland, Victoria, Western Australia

Sandstone vs Shale Information

Earth’s outer layer is covered by rocks and these rocks have different physical and chemical properties. As two rocks are not same, it’s fun to compare them. You can also know more about Sandstone and Shale Reserves. Sandstone is defined as a rock which is composed of sand-sized grains of various minerals mostly of uniform size and often are smooth and rounded. Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock which is formed by the compaction of silt and clay-size mineral particles. These rocks are composed of many distinct minerals. The process of formation of rocks is different for various rocks. Rocks are quarried from many years for various purposes. You can check out Sandstone vs Shale information and Sandstone vs Shale characteristics in the upcoming sections.

Sandstone vs Shale Characteristics

Though some rocks look identical, they have certain characteristics which distinguish them from others. Characteristics of rocks include texture, appearance, color, fracture, streak, hardness etc. Sandstone vs Shale characteristics assist us to distinguish and recognize rocks. Also you can check about Properties of Sandstone and Properties of Shale. Learn more about Sandstone vs Shale in the next section. The interior uses of Sandstone include Countertops, Decorative aggregates and Interior decoration whereas the interior uses of Shale include Decorative aggregates, Homes and Interior decoration. Due to some exceptional properties of Sandstone and Shale, they have various applications in construction industry. The uses of Sandstone in construction industry include Cement manufacture, Construction aggregate, For road aggregate, Production of glass and ceramics, Raw material for the manufacture of mortar and that of Shale include Cement manufacture, Construction aggregate, For road aggregate, Making natural cement, Raw material for the manufacture of mortar.

More about Sandstone and Shale

Here you can know more about Sandstone and Shale. The life cycle of a rock consists of formation of rock, composition of rock and transformation of rock. The composition of Sandstone and Shale consists of mineral content and compound content. The mineral content of Sandstone includes Calcite, Clay, Clay Minerals, Feldspar, Micas, Quartz and mineral content of Shale includes Albite, Biotite, Calcite, Chert, Chlorite, Dolomite, Hematite, Micas, Muscovite or Illite, Pyrite, Quartz, Silica, Sulfides. You can also check out the list of all Sedimentary Rocks. When we have to compare Sandstone vs Shale, the texture, color and appearance plays an important role in determining the type of rock. Sandstone is available in beige, black, brown, colourless, cream, dark brown, green, grey, light green, light to dark grey, pink, red, white, yellow colors whereas, Shale is available in black, brown, buff, green, grey, red, yellow colors. Appearance of Sandstone is Rough and that of Shale is Muddy. Properties of rock is another aspect for Sandstone vs Shale. The hardness of Sandstone is 6-7 and that of Shale is 3. The types of Sandstone are Grey Sandstones, Crystallized Sandstones, Hard Sandstones , Carbonate Cemented Sandstones and Ganister whereas types of Shale are Red Shale, Black Shale, Green Shale, Grey Shale and Yellow Shale. Streak of rock is the color of powder produced when it is dragged across an unweathered surface. The streak of Sandstone and Shale is white. The specific heat capacity of Sandstone is 0.92 kJ/Kg K and that of Shale is 0.39 kJ/Kg K. Depending on the properties like hardness, toughness, specific heat capacity, porosity etc., rocks are resistant to heat, wear, impact, etc.Sandstone is heat resistant, impact resistant, pressure resistant whereas Shale is heat resistant, impact resistant.