Novaculite and Shonkinite

1 Definition
1.1 Definition
Novaculite is a dense, hard, fine-grained, siliceous metamorpic rock which is a type of chert that breaks with conchoidal fracture
Shonkinite is a rare, dark-coloured and intrusive igneous rock which contains augite and orthoclase feldspar as its primary constituents
1.2 History
1.2.1 Origin
1.2.2 Discoverer
1.3 Etymology
From Latin word novacula, for razor stone
From the name of Shonkin Sag ranges in the Highwood Mountains of north-central Montana, US
1.4 Class
Sedimentary Rocks
Igneous Rocks
1.4.1 Sub-Class
Durable Rock, Hard Rock
Durable Rock, Medium Hardness Rock
1.5 Family
1.5.1 Group
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
1.6 Other Categories
Fine Grained Rock, Opaque Rock
Coarse Grained Rock, Fine Grained Rock, Medium Grained Rock, Opaque Rock
2 Texture
2.1 Texture
Banded, Glassy, Rough, Vitreous
2.2 Color
Black, Brown, Green, Grey, Red, White
Brown, Buff, Cream, Green, Grey, Pink, White
2.3 Maintenance
2.4 Durability
2.4.1 Water Resistant
59% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
81% Igneous Rocks Rocks have it !
2.4.2 Scratch Resistant
62% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
86% Igneous Rocks Rocks have it !
2.4.3 Stain Resistant
43% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
66% Igneous Rocks Rocks have it !
2.4.4 Wind Resistant
38% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
49% Igneous Rocks Rocks have it !
2.4.5 Acid Resistant
22% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
48% Igneous Rocks Rocks have it !
2.5 Appearance
Glassy or Pearly
Banded and Foilated
3 Uses
3.1 Architecture
3.1.1 Interior Uses
Countertops, Decorative Aggregates, Flooring, Interior Decoration
Decorative Aggregates, Flooring, Homes, Interior Decoration
3.1.2 Exterior Uses
As Building Stone, Garden Decoration
As Building Stone, As Facing Stone, Garden Decoration, Paving Stone
3.1.3 Other Architectural Uses
3.2 Industry
3.2.1 Construction Industry
Arrowheads, Building houses or walls, Cement Manufacture, Construction Aggregate, Cutting Tool, for Road Aggregate, Knives, Landscaping, Making natural cement, Production of Glass and Ceramics, Rail Track Ballast, Roadstone, Spear Points, Used to sharpen metal tools and weapons
As Dimension Stone, Cement Manufacture, Construction Aggregate, for Road Aggregate, Landscaping, Making natural cement, Manufacture of Magnesium and Dolomite Refractories
3.2.2 Medical Industry
Not Yet Used
Not Yet Used
3.3 Antiquity Uses
Artifacts, Monuments
Artifacts, Monuments, Sculpture
3.4 Other Uses
3.4.1 Commercial Uses
Cemetery Markers, Gemstone, In aquifers, In fire-starting tools, Jewelry, Manufacture of tools, Pebbles are used in ball mills to grind in ceramics industry, To determine the gold content of jewelry
Cemetery Markers, Creating Artwork
4 Types
4.1 Types
Not Available
Not Available
4.2 Features
Clasts are smooth to touch, Easily splits into thin plates, Has High structural resistance against erosion and climate
Available in Lots of Colors and Patterns, Is one of the oldest rock, Matrix variable
4.3 Archaeological Significance
4.3.1 Monuments
4.3.2 Famous Monuments
Data Not Available
Data Not Available
4.3.3 Sculpture
Not Yet Used
4.3.4 Famous Sculptures
Not Applicable
Data Not Available
4.3.5 Pictographs
Not Used
4.3.6 Petroglyphs
Not Used
4.3.7 Figurines
Not Yet Used
4.4 Fossils
5 Formation
5.1 Formation
Novaculite forms when microcrystals of silicon dioxide grow within soft sediments that become limestone or chalk. The formation of Novaculite can be either of chemical or biological origin.
Shonkinites are formed due to alkaline igneous activities and are generally formed in thick continental crustal areas or in Cordilleran subduction zones.
5.2 Composition
5.2.1 Mineral Content
Quartz, Silicon
Amphibole, Biotite, Feldspar, Hornblade, Micas, Muscovite or Illite, Plagioclase, Pyroxene, Quartz
5.2.2 Compound Content
Ca, Silicon Dioxide
Aluminium Oxide, CaO, Iron(III) Oxide, FeO, Potassium Oxide, MgO, MnO, Sodium Oxide, Phosphorus Pentoxide, Silicon Dioxide, Titanium Dioxide
5.3 Transformation
5.3.1 Metamorphism
19% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
97% Igneous Rocks Rocks have it !
5.3.2 Types of Metamorphism
Not Applicable
Burial Metamorphism, Cataclastic Metamorphism, Contact Metamorphism, Hydrothermal Metamorphism, Impact Metamorphism, Regional Metamorphism
5.3.3 Weathering
78% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
99% Igneous Rocks Rocks have it !
5.3.4 Types of Weathering
Not Applicable
Biological Weathering, Chemical Weathering, Mechanical Weathering
5.3.5 Erosion
86% Sedimentary Rocks Rocks have it !
92% Igneous Rocks Rocks have it !
5.3.6 Types of Erosion
Chemical Erosion, Coastal Erosion, Glacier Erosion
Chemical Erosion, Coastal Erosion, Sea Erosion, Water Erosion
6 Properties
6.1 Physical Properties
6.1.1 Hardness
6.1.2 Grain Size
Fine Grained
Medium to Fine Coarse Grained
6.1.3 Fracture
Not Available
6.1.4 Streak
6.1.5 Porosity
Less Porous
Less Porous
6.1.6 Luster
Waxy and Dull
Subvitreous to Dull
6.1.7 Compressive Strength
What Is Flint
450.00 N/mm2
Rank: 1 (Overall)
150.00 N/mm2
Rank: 14 (Overall)
What Is Obsidian
6.1.8 Cleavage
6.1.9 Toughness
Not Available
6.1.10 Specific Gravity
6.1.11 Transparency
Translucent to Opaque
6.1.12 Density
2.7 g/cm3
2.6-2.8 g/cm3
6.2 Thermal Properties
6.2.1 Specific Heat Capacity
What Is Banded ..
0.74 kJ/Kg K
Rank: 19 (Overall)
0.92 kJ/Kg K
Rank: 10 (Overall)
What Is Granulite
6.2.2 Resistance
Heat Resistant, Impact Resistant, Pressure Resistant, Wear Resistant
Heat Resistant, Impact Resistant, Wear Resistant
7 Reserves
7.1 Deposits in Eastern Continents
7.1.1 Asia
China, India, Iran, Japan, Oman, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam
China, India, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam
7.1.2 Africa
Kenya, Morocco, South Africa, Tanzania
Angola, Egypt, Madagascar, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa
7.1.3 Europe
Austria, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom
Bulgaria, England, Germany, Norway, Romania, Switzerland
7.1.4 Others
Greenland, Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Not Yet Found
7.2 Deposits in Western Continents
7.2.1 North America
Canada, Mexico, USA
7.2.2 South America
Bolivia, Brazil
Brazil, Chile
7.3 Deposits in Oceania Continent
7.3.1 Australia
New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia
New Zealand, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia

All about Novaculite and Shonkinite Properties

Know all about Novaculite and Shonkinite properties here. All properties of rocks are important as they define the type of rock and its application. Novaculite belongs to Sedimentary Rocks while Shonkinite belongs to Igneous Rocks.Texture of Novaculite is Banded, Glassy, Rough, Vitreous whereas that of Shonkinite is Earthy. Novaculite appears Glassy or Pearly and Shonkinite appears Banded and Foilated. The luster of Novaculite is waxy and dull while that of Shonkinite is subvitreous to dull. Novaculite is available in black, brown, green, grey, red, white colors whereas Shonkinite is available in brown, buff, cream, green, grey, pink, white colors. The commercial uses of Novaculite are cemetery markers, gemstone, in aquifers, in fire-starting tools, jewelry, manufacture of tools, pebbles are used in ball mills to grind in ceramics industry, to determine the gold content of jewelry and that of Shonkinite are cemetery markers, creating artwork.

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